A mysterious trail of stars formed eight thousand million years ago and recently discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope has been a challenge to a number of research groups. Its size is similar to that of the Milky Way, and this very long narrow structure has given rise to several explanations of its origin.
According to a controvertial initial hypthesis this trail of stars could be the result of the passage of a supermassive black hole through a huge cloud of gas. This idea quickly fired the imagination of the astronomical community, because it needs a large set of complex exceptional circumstances. For this reason several scientific teams have continued to explore different, and less exotic scenarios which can explain the observations.
In a recent study, researchers at the IAC have reached the conclusion that this unusual structure of stars could be interpreted as a galaxy without a bulge seen edge-on. This type of galaxies, also called thin, or flat galaxies, are relatively common. “The motions, the size, and the quantity of stars fits what has been seen in galaxies within the local universe” explains Jorge Sanchez Almeida, an IAC researcher who is the first author of the article. “It’s a relief to have found the solution to this mystery, the new proposed scenario is much simpler. In one sense it is also a pity, because the existence of fleeing black holes is expected, and this could have been the first one to be observed.”
To support the hypothesis of the interpretation in terms of a galaxy, the team compared the mysterious structure with a well known local galaxy without a bulge, IC5249, which has a similar mass of stars, and found surprising agreement. In the words of Mireia Montes, an IAC researcher who is a co-author of the article , “When we analyzed the velocities of this distant structure of stars we realized that they were very similar to those obtained from the rotation of galaxies, so we decided to compare a much closer galaxy, and found that they are extraordinarily similar.”
“We also looked at the relation between the mass of the assumed galaxy and its máximum velocity of rotation, and discovered that indeed it is a galaxy which behaves like a galaxy,” states Ignacio Trujillo, an IAC researcher who has taken part in the study. “It is an interesting object, because it is quite a large galaxy at a very large distance from Earth, where the majority of the galaxies are smaller,” he adds.
Upcoming observations will allow the study of this object in greater detail.
Riemann Surfaces Simulate Black Holes
by Zahra Davari, BSc of applied maths, Khayyam university of mashhad |date:nov30,2021
We study w=f(z)=e^z such that z,w are belong to complex numbe in this article. Simulate this to supernova, when it come back to it ‘s singularity, it become neutron star. Otherwise makes ringularity and change to black hole. Also see w=cos z as dance of black holes.
Riemann surfaces simulate Black Holes
Riemann surfaces is a geometric device. He used it to build a bridge between analysis and geometry. Now we use it to simulate supernova in change to neutron star or black hole. For clear our view, make a stripe of paper or cloth. Turn one end 180 degrees and paste it. This is Möbius stripe.
Choose a flexible one and paste it edge to edge. Look at snail shape. It turn itself from one point.
If paste two möbius stripe then we have Klein bottle (4 dimentional object) and so on .Do this for 180×a such that “a” belongs to natural number. Draw n-th parallel line on möbius strip and cut them. See strange shapes. Let us paste two möbius strip. Then cut them. It’s hard, so make a nice trick on them. Paste two strip cross way. Now make them möbius one. One counter clock wise, the other clock wise. Now half them. Two heart shape in each other. When we do it both clock wise and cut them. Then we have separate hearts. It’s turn to logarithmic Riemann surfaces  z= e^2 has singularity at zero slite on “-x axes”. It has two sheet too. We need finite plane to stick them to each other cross way. It’s looks we need more slite plan. By z=e^w we have spiral stairs, but we can not close them yet. Make a trick on it. We extend sigularity epsilon nigberhood, and remove it. Now look, it be closed easily. All the surface can moved in singularity.
lmagin an old big star have many levels of heavey element heavier than iron , radio active elements discreate plasma. Then it burst. When mass back to the star, many tornado create and join to main tornado in the poles and create jets. It speed up it spin for balance the mass. The angular momentum from up and down push other mass as accreation disk. By the time, it be thicker.This simulate of neutron star. But when singularity change to ringularity. Schwartzschield radius appeared and hiden the huge mass.(may be new state of dese matter create). Black holes are interesting object that rearrenge gravity around itself. Create new star and galaxies by their jets. They are bless of the universe. It’s internal discreates very very slowly kill the black holes. They evaporate after googel time.
 White dwarf can not make jets. For did not have enough mass to leveled materials. It can springs back to life when feeding on material from a stellar companian.
 w=cos z have two singularities at -1 and 1 in addition to have split on (-infinity,-1) , (1,+infinity). If we have finite cosin Riemann surfaces , and paste them as posibility as we can, then it stand for dance of binary black holes. Research of Sussex university reveal that black holes have pressure. To our view ( riemann surfaces) is ok. Discreates maybe cause pressure and slipper binary black holes to merges!
Fieled theory says: The big amount of mass divorce electromagnetic force and mass be hidden. String theory says: I predicted high dimention is exsist. Info theory says if nano-tech
scientist discover new matter that not synthises in black hole and when we (immortal human) navigate in it and find main discreate way, then we can get out by jets of black hole .《notice: NASA says, the run away black hole that makes 200,000 light years trail of stars. 》 General relativity says: ” Spacetime tells matter how to move, and matter tells spacetime how to curves”.
Suppose we focus many kind of laser on a vaccum point and be pationt as the Universe do because of many frequencies, in the end we will have “Kugelblitz”.
 Tearenko explain, Jet material alter the chemistry of interstellar gas and affect galaxy and star formation. Observer shows that jet power from inter black hole theory is stronger.
“In Riemann surfaces view “, we can have model that satify star formation and death.To hit this view to reality. We need (ALMA) observation (match model to the data) and high level of immortality too ! And this roughly speaking must be translate to topology, that can be useful for scientists.
riemann surfaces, supernova, neutron star, black holes, möbius strip, Klein bottel, logarithmic riemann surfaces z=e^2 & z= e^w , accreation disk, singularity, ringularity, Schwartzchield radius, white dawrf, cosin riemann surfaces w= cos z , dance of binary black holes, Fieled theory, String theory, Info theory, jet of black holes, General relativity, laser, Kugelblitz, star formation and death.
 Functions of a complex variables-Tall,David:
 newsweek.com : Dead star come back to life while devuring companion R.Lee10.09.21
 Complex analysis-Ahlfors
 skyandtelescope.org Astronomer Watch Jet Launch by L.Chiou nov.29.2021
Thanks for reading. ■